Waste treatment, Water, Sanitation
The absolute basics of solid waste for householders were laid out in 2000 and have hardly changed in the meantime, except that source separation of solid waste, and routine recycling measures is now a mainstream norm:
Waste: The Basics for Householders 2000 (doc)
A two-year experiment with solid waste, logging 80% reduction in general solid waste and 95% reduction in environmental impacts, is recorded here:
Since a large proportion of the reductions were achieved by composting, here is a slightly more focused look at composting, particularly at a domestic scale:
On the treatment of dirty water and toilet wastes, I would recommend only the 'low-hanging fruit', but some can be successfully and usefully processed on-site in a typical domestic setting, and some nutrients recovered.